Wednesday, July 16, 2008

Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows Firefox

Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows Firefox
By Matthew Elton
Ctrl-D = Add bookmark
Backspace = Back
Ctrl-B = Bookmarks
Ctrl-I = Bookmarks
F7 = Caret Browsing
Ctrl-W = Close Tab
Ctrl-F4 = Close Tab
Ctrl-Shift-W = Close Window
Alt-F4 = Close Window
Ctrl-Enter = Add .com to address bar
Shift-Enter = Add .net to address bar
Ctrl-Shift-Enter = Add .org to address bar
Ctrl-C = Copy
Ctrl-X = Cut
Ctrl-- = Shrink text
Delete = Delete
Shift-Delete = Delete Individual Form AutoComplete Entry
Ctrl-Shift-I = DOM Inspector
Ctrl-J = Downloads
Ctrl-G = Find Again
F3 = Find Again
‘ = Find As You Type Link
/ = Find As You Type Text
Ctrl-Shift-G = Find Previous
Shift-F3 = Find Previous
Ctrl-F = Find in This Page
Shift-Backspace = Forward
Alt-Enter = Forward
Down Arrow = Scroll Down
Up Arrow = Scroll Up
Page Down = Scroll Down really fast
Page Up = Scroll Up really fast
End = Go to Bottom of Page
Home = Go to Top of Page
F11 = Full Screen
F1 = Help
Ctrl-H = History
Alt-Home = Go to your homepage
Ctrl-+ = Enlarge text
F6 = Move to Next Frame
Shift-F6 = Move to Previous Frame
Ctrl-M = New Mail Message
Ctrl-T = New Tab
Ctrl-Tab = Next Tab
Ctrl-Page Down = Next Tab
Ctrl-N = New Window
Ctrl-O = Open File
Enter = Activate selected hyperlink
Ctrl-Enter = Open selected hyperlink in a new window
Shift-Enter = Open selected hyperlink in a new window
Alt-Enter = Open address in address bar in a new tab
Ctrl-U = Page source
Ctrl-V = Paste
Ctrl-Shift-Tab = Previous Tab
Ctrl-Page Up = Previous Tab
Ctrl-P = Print
Ctrl-Shift-Z = Redo
Ctrl-Y = Redo
F5 = Refresh
Ctrl-R = Refresh
Ctrl-F5 = SuperRefresh (refreshes the page even if no changes have been made to
the page since you last loaded it)
Ctrl-Shift-R = SuperRefresh (refreshes the page even if no changes have been made
to the page since you last loaded it)
Ctrl-0 = Restore text size
Ctrl-S = Save Page As
Alt-Enter = Save target of selected hyperlink as
Ctrl-A = Select All
Ctrl-L = Select Location Bar
Alt-D = Select Location Bar
Down Arrow = Select Next AutoComplete entry in textbox
Up Arrow = Select Previous AutoComplete entry in textbox
Ctrl-Down Arrow = Select Next Search Engine in Search Bar
Ctrl-Up Arrow = Select Previous Search Engine in Search Bar
Ctrl-1 = Select first tab
Ctrl-2 = Select second tab
Ctrl-3 = Select third tab
Ctrl-4 = Select fourth tab
Ctrl-5 = Select fifth tab
Ctrl-6 = Select sixth tab
Ctrl-7 = Select seventh tab
Ctrl-8 = Select eighth tab
Ctrl-9 = Select ninth tab
Escape = Stop loading a page
Ctrl-Z = Undo
Ctrl-K = Web Search

Gmail Cheatsheet

Gmail Cheatsheet / Jim Callender www.
Shortcut Key Definition Action
c Compose Allows you to compose a new message. + c allows you to compose a
message in a new window.
/ Search Puts your cursor in the search box.
k Move to newer conversation Opens or moves your cursor to a more recent conversation. You can press
to expand a conversation.
j Move to older conversation Opens or moves your cursor to the next oldest conversation. You can press
to expand a conversation.
n Next message Moves your cursor to the next message. You can press to expand or
collapse a message. (Only applicable in 'Conversation View.')
p Previous message Moves your cursor to the previous message. You can press to expand or
collapse a message. (Only applicable in 'Conversation View.')
o or Open Opens your conversation. Also expands or collapses a message if you are in
'Conversation View'.
u Return to conversation list Refreshes your page and returns you to the inbox or list of conversations.
y Archive*
Remove from current view
Automatically removes the message or conversation from your current view.
· From 'Inbox', 'y' means Archive
· From 'Starred', 'y' means Unstar
· From any label, 'y' means Remove the label
* 'y' has no effect if you are in 'Spam', 'Sent' or 'All Mail'.
x Select conversation Automatically checks and selects a conversation so that you can archive, apply a
label or choose an action from the dropdown
menu to apply to that conversation.
s Star a message or conversation Adds or removes a star to a message or conversation. Stars allow you to give a
special status to a message or conversation.
! Report spam Marks a message as spam and removes it from your conversation list.
r Reply Reply to the message sender. + r allows you to reply to a message in a
new window. (Only applicable in 'Conversation View'.)
a Reply all Reply to all message recipients. +a allows you to reply to all message
recipients in a new window. (Only applicable in 'Conversation View'.)
f Forward Forward a message. + f allows you to forward a message in a new
window. (Only applicable in 'Conversation View'.)
Escape from input field Removes the cursor from your current input field.
the following combinations of keys to navigate through Google Mail.
Shortcut Key Definition Action
Send message After composing your message, use this combination to send it automatically. (Supported only in
Internet Explorer.)
y then o Archive and next Archive your conversation and move to the next one.
g then a Go to 'All Mail' Takes you to 'All Mail', the storage site for all mail you have ever sent or received (and have not
g then s Go to 'Starred' Takes you to all conversations that you have starred.
g then c Go to 'Contacts' Takes you to your Contacts list.
g then d Go to 'Drafts' Takes you to all drafts you have saved.
g then i Go to 'Inbox' Returns you to the inbox.

Friday, July 4, 2008

The DIY guide to PC troubleshooting and repair

The DIY guide to PC troubleshooting and repair

Scott Dunn By Scott Dunn

The next time your computer acts up, drop the mouse, put down the phone, and use this troubleshooting checklist to find and fix the problem.

Whether it's a slowdown, some strange behavior, or a total crash, a few basic troubleshooting tricks and tools may be all you need to get your PC back to peak performance.

Do this before you call the repair shop

If it hasn't happened recently, it will soon: something goes wrong with your computer. If you ring up the repair shop or call tech support, the person you talk to probably has less PC experience than you do.

Save your time, trouble, and money by using these dozen tips and tools to ferret out system failures, application crashes, and bizarre Windows behaviors on your own.

Check the obvious. Whether your computer won't start, your browser won't browse, or your word processor won't process, take a deep breath and check the usual suspects — power outages, unplugged or loose cords and cables, or an always-on monitor that somehow got turned off. If everything's properly powered, reboot your PC or restart your modem. This simple step resolves a great number of random glitches.

Ask yourself what has changed about your system. If you recently installed new hardware or software, shut it down. Make sure a program isn't running in the background by checking for its icon in the system tray. If it's there, right-click the icon and choose Exit or Close.

Look for a listing for the program under the Processes tab in Task Manager; press Ctrl+Alt+Delete to open the utility. Or you could simply uninstall the application. If you just updated one of your device drivers, revert to the old one by using Windows' device driver rollback feature. The steps can be found in Microsoft Knowledge Base 283657.

Divide and conquer, part one. To determine whether an auto-start application is the culprit, open the System Configuration utility (a.k.a. "Msconfig") to turn off all startup programs. Press the Windows key and R, type msconfig, and press Enter. Under the General tab, click Selective Startup and uncheck Load Startup Items. Then restart your PC.

If the problem goes away, return to Msconfig, click Normal Startup under the General tab, choose the Startup tab, and enable your autostart programs one at a time until the problem recurs, at which time you've found the source of the trouble.

Vista has its own tool for managing startup programs — Software Explorer, which is part of Windows Defender. Software Explorer is clumsy and not nearly as easy to use as Microsoft's free AutoRuns utility, which works in XP, too.

Strategies and techniques for troubling times

Give System Restore a chance. If your problem appeared recently and the cause is not apparent, System Restore may be able to bring your PC back to a functional state. Choose Start, All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, System Restore. Select Restore my computer to an earlier time, click Next, and follow the prompts. For more info on System Restore, see Woody Leonhard's tips in the paid version of the Feb. 16, 2006, issue.

Try a different profile. Log out of your current account and log into a different one. If you don't have any other accounts, create one. An alternative account can come in handy if your current account becomes corrupted. To create one, open Windows' User Accounts Control Panel applet, click Create a new account, and follow the steps. (In Vista, you have to click either Add or remove user accounts or Manage another account before you click Create a new account.)

If the problem doesn't occur in the other account, something is wrong with your profile in the HKEY_CURRENT_USER section of the Registry. You can always use the second profile as your new main account, although you'll have to reinstall some software and redo your custom settings. Still, this is better than having to reinstall Windows.

Choose the Last Known Good. If you're unable to log into Windows at all, press F8 after booting your computer but before Windows starts. On the Windows Advanced Options Menu screen, use the arrow keys to select Last Known Good Configuration and press Enter.

This option reverses the last configuration change made to your computer. If this setting allows Windows to load, your problem may be solved. Last Known Good Configuration can't correct every problem, but like many of these strategies, it's worth a try.

Crack open Safe Mode. Should Last Known Good Configuration fail to put you back in the Windows driver's seat, press F8 on startup again to return to the Windows Advanced Options Menu, but this time select Safe Mode (or Safe Mode with Networking if you need to access the Internet or a network resource).

Unlike Last Known Good Configuration, Safe Mode doesn't fix anything; it simply attempts to start Windows by using a very basic set of drivers. If you can successfully start Windows in Safe Mode, there's a good chance your problem is due to a device driver. You can also use Safe Mode to correct the problem — once you figure out what it is (see the next tip for more).

Enable boot logging. Check Windows' boot logs for information if you suspect the problem is related to a particular device or driver. To enable boot logging, press F8 on startup to open the Windows Advanced Options Menu. Arrow down to Enable Boot Logging and press Enter to start Windows with this feature turned on.

To open the log file, press Win+R, type c:\windows\ntbklog.txt, and press Enter. The boot log adds new information to the bottom of the file, so scroll down to get the latest scoop. Look for lines that indicate one or more drivers didn't load properly.

Boot logging occurs automatically when you use Safe Mode to log into windows, but the resulting log isn't very useful — it shows all the drivers Safe Mode doesn't use, but it doesn't tell you which ones may be causing the problems.

Divide and conquer, part two. If you suspect a driver or other system file is the culprit but haven't yet found the guilty party, isolate the problem by using Msconfig to create custom configurations. But first, a warning: Using Msconfig to temporarily disable Windows services will delete restore points created by System Restore. Try this technique only if System Restore didn't fix the problem and you're sure you won't need any of your existing restore points.

Press Win+R, type msconfig, and press Enter. On the General tab, select Diagnostic startup and click OK. Follow the prompts to restart your system. If the problem is resolved, you can add other system files back in by using the Selective Startup option on the General tab to isolate whether the problem is in System.ini, wini.ini, services, and so on. Once you've narrowed your search down to a specific area, get more granular by using the check boxes under the other Msconfig tabs to turn on specific items (such as individual services).

Get more info from Windows. Some crashes cause your system to reboot automatically. This Windows feature keeps you from seeing helpful information about what might be causing the problem. To prevent automatic restarts after crashes, reboot and press F8 before Windows loads to view the Windows Advanced Options Menu. Use the arrow keys to select Disable automatic restart on system failure.

To turn the feature back on in XP, or to turn it off without restarting your computer, right-click My Computer and choose Properties, Advanced. Under Startup and Recovery, click Settings. Use the checkbox under Automatic Restart to turn the feature on or off.

In Vista, press Start, type SystemPropertiesAdvanced, and press Enter. Click Continue when prompted by User Account Control. Click the Advanced tab and under Startup and Recovery click Settings. Use the checkbox under Automatic Restart to turn the feature on or off.

The next time you have an unscheduled reboot, some text should appear on your screen with information about the error and possibly the name of the file that caused the problem. If necessary, you can do a Web search on that file name to get more information.

For example, Windows might list a component of your system's video drivers as the cause. If so, it may be time to check for a driver update on the Web site of your video card's manufacturer.

Run system file checker. If you believe a Windows file has been overwritten by another program, run the System File Checker to examine your files and replace any problem ones with Microsoft originals. Open a Command Prompt window with Administrator privileges, type sfc /scannow, and press Enter. You may be prompted to insert your Windows install CD to allow System File Checker to retrieve the original file.

Microsoft has published two articles on using this tool, one that refers to Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, and another describing how to use it in Vista.

Try a troubleshooter. The adage says: When all else fails, read the directions. Windows Help may miss the mark much of the time, but some of its troubleshooting guides are actually helpful in certain cases. Open the guides by choosing Start, Help and Support. Search for troubleshoot, troubleshooting, and troubleshooter. Do a separate search for each term because you'll get slightly different results each time.

Be persistent, but have an exit strategy

An old friend and talented troubleshooter used to tell me, "When all else fails, poke at it." Sheer determination has helped me solve many computer problems. Try one possible solution after another, but remember to make sure you can undo every "fix" you try so you don't inadvertently make things worse.

For example, when editing the Registry, be sure to use the File, Export command to create a backup of the Registry branch you're about to tweak. Any keys (or branches) you add to the Registry subsequently will not be included in the backup, of course.

Some General Tips For Switch to Mac From Windows

Sales of Apple's Macintosh computers have been growing much faster than PC sales overall, with many new Mac buyers switching from years of using Windows computers. For that reason, every month I get emails from readers asking about the differences in using the Windows and Macintosh operating systems.

While the Windows and Mac user interfaces are broadly similar, they do have subtle variations in day-to-day use that require some re-education for switchers. And because there are so many fewer Mac users than Windows users, help from friends and co-workers can be harder to obtain than it is for people switching the other way, to Windows from Mac.

So, here's a quick tip sheet explaining a few of the most common differences in the daily use of Windows XP, from which most people would be switching, and Apple's Mac OS X Leopard, which switchers would be adopting.

This column isn't an argument for making the switch to a Mac, merely an attempt to help those who have done so, or who are considering doing so. Of course, all Macs currently sold can run Windows and Windows programs concurrently with the Mac operating system. But this guide is for folks who intend to use their Macs primarily with Leopard, not Windows.

Menu Bars: In Windows, each program typically has its own menu bar. On the Mac, there's a single menu bar at the top of the screen that changes, depending on which program you are actively using.

Task Bar: The equivalent of the Windows XP Task Bar on the Mac is the Dock. Unlike the Task Bar, which primarily holds icons representing open windows, the Mac Dock primarily holds icons of programs you use most often. To place a program onto the Dock, you just drag its icon there. To remove it, you just drag its icon off the Dock and it disappears in a puff of animated smoke.

Start Menu: There is no Start Menu on a Mac. Its functions are divided between the Dock and the Apple menu at the upper left of the Mac screen.

Control Panel: The Mac equivalent of the Windows Control Panel is called System Preferences, and it can be launched from either the Dock or the Apple menu.

Keyboard shortcuts: Common Windows keyboard commands, such as Ctrl-S for Save, Ctrl-P for Print, and many others, are also available on the Mac. However, instead of using the Control key, they use the Mac's Command key, which bears either a cloverlike symbol or an Apple logo. So, on the Mac, for instance, Command-S is for Save.

Quitting programs: In Windows, you can quit a program by clicking on the red "X" in a square at the upper right corner of the window you're using. But on the Mac, if you click on the equivalent button -- a red "X" in a circle in the upper left corner -- you are merely closing the window, not quitting the program. To quit the program, you must either select Quit from the leftmost menu or press the Command and "Q" keys together.

Maximizing windows: When you click on the blue maximize button in Windows XP, the window you are viewing occupies the whole screen. In Leopard, the equivalent button -- a green circle at the upper left -- increases a small window's size to a footprint deemed optimal for its contents, which isn't always the whole screen.

Switching programs: One common way to switch among running programs in Windows XP is to press Alt and Tab together. This displays icons of each running program and allows you to switch among them. On a Mac, the same trick can be performed by pressing the Command and Tab keys together. The Mac also has a terrific feature called Expose, which shows every open window at once, in miniature form, so you can navigate among them. You can trigger Expose in a number of ways, but the most common is to hit either the F9 key or the dedicated Expose key, depending on your Mac model.

Right-clicking: Contrary to common belief, the Mac has a right-click menu function, just like Windows. Most desktop Macs now come with a mouse that allows right-clicking, and you can use almost any two-button USB mouse with any modern Mac. If you are using a Mac laptop, which has only one button under the track pad, you can simulate a right-click by either holding down the Control key when you click, or by placing two fingers on the track pad while clicking. The latter technique, which I favor, must first be turned on in System Preferences.

Screen: Your desktop picture and screen saver on a Mac are set via a System Preference called Desktop & Screen Saver. Screen resolution is set in the Displays System Preference. In Windows XP, all of these things are included in the Display control panel.

For more information, Apple offers two Web sites. One is called Mac 101, and is at The other is called Switch 101, and is at